вторник, 17 июня 2014 г.

Что такое пародонтоз

Что такое пародонтоз, пародонтит?

Пародонт - это ткани, которые удерживают зуб. К ним относятся кость, десна, слизистая оболочка и связки. Пародонтит - это воспалительный процесс в окружающих зуб тканях. Пародонтит это второе по распространенности после кариеса заболевание зубочелюстной системы.
Пародонтит представляет собой инфекционное заболевание, при котором наступает разрушение опорного аппарата зуба. При пародонтите инфекция попадает в пространство между зубом и десной и начинает разрушать связку корня зуба с костью.
У 100% взрослого населения Земли и у 80% детей, как утверждают специалисты ВОЗ, отмечаются те или иные признаки пародонтита.
Пародонтит является одной из основных причин потери зубов в старшем возрасте.

Причины, вызывающие пародонтоз и пародонтит

Причины пародонтоза до конца неизвестны. Определенную роль играет наследственная предрасположенность, нередко пародонтоз развивается на фоне другой патологии, например, атеросклероза, сахарного диабета, нарушения функции желудочно-кишечного тракта, гиповитаминоза, изменений реактивности организма и др. Влияет и нарушение питания тканей, окружающих зуб, вследствие особенностей кровообращения в этой зоне (атеросклеротические изменения кровеносных сосудов).
Местные факторы, такие, как воздействие микроорганизмов на пародонт, могут лишь отягощать течение процесса.
Пародонтит может стать следствием действия патогенных микроорганизмов, накапливающихся в зубном налете и камне, травм зуба, кариеса, некачественно выполненного зубного протезирования или реставрации нарушений целостности зуба. Существенно повышают вероятность развития пародонтита нарушения гигиены полости рта, искривления зубов и нарушения прикуса, особенности питания, снижение общей иммунной реактивности организма пациента.
Главной причиной заболевания десен является бактериальный налет, который представляет собой липкую, бесцветную пленку, постоянно образующуюся на зубах. Если налет не удалять, он отвердевает и образует грубый пористый нарост, который называется зубным камнем. При прогрессировании заболевания токсины могут привести к разрушению поддерживающих зубы тканей. Между зубом и десной образуется пространство - зубодесневой карман, который заполняется налетом. Поддерживающая зубы кость подвергается постоянному разрушению.
Пародонтит может развиваться после воспаления десен гингивита или другого заболевания пародонтоза.

пятница, 18 апреля 2014 г.

Are You Biting Off More Than You Can Chew?

In our fast-paced lives, many of us may be eating in a hurry, taking giant bites of our food to get done quickly and on to the next task. Fast-food restaurants advertise giant burgers and sandwiches as a selling point, but often those super-sized delicacies are larger than a human mouth. Taking bites that are too big to chew could be bad for your jaw and teeth, says the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD), an organization of general dentists dedicated to continuing education. At particular risk are people with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), which can restrict the range of acceptable bite size. "People with TMD need to avoid opening their mouths too wide," says AGD spokesperson Barbara A. Rich, DDS, FAGD. "Taking large bites of food can aggravate their condition." So, smoosh that hoagie before taking a bite. Dr. Rich also cautions against biting into hard candies, which can chip teeth. Even apples can cause problems. "If you need to open your mouth more than feels comfortable to take a bite, then you should cut the item into smaller portions that are easy to chew," Dr. Rich says. People should always avoid chewing ice, popcorn kernels and opening nuts with their teeth, which can lead to chipping and breakage of natural teeth and restorations. Updated:

How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth?

How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth?

Though you lose them early in life, your primary teeth, also called baby teeth, are essential in the development and placement of your permanent teeth. Primary teeth maintain the spaces where permanent teeth will erupt and help develop proper speech patterns that would otherwise be difficult; without maintenance of these spaces, crowding and misalignment can occur, resulting in more complicated treatment later. Baby teeth also are primers for teaching your child good oral care habits. It is important to take care of your child's primary teeth. Even though primary teeth last only a few years, decay, cavities and infection can take its toll and may require expensive treatment to repair.

When do baby teeth come in?

Your child's primary teeth generally make their appearance when he or she is 6 or 7 months old, though it can occur as early as birth. There are 20 primary teeth, followed by 32 permanent teeth that will eventually replace them. Your child should have all his or her primary teeth at age 3 and will keep them until age 5 or 6, when they begin to loosen and fall out. This process usually lasts until the child is 12 or 13. Primary teeth fall out because permanent teeth are pushing them, and by about age 14 children have 28 permanent teeth, plus four additional teeth, called wisdom teeth, that grow behind the permanent teeth in late adolescence.

What can relieve my child's discomfort during teething?

Between the ages of 6 months and 3 years, your child may experience sore gums and general oral discomfort as primary teeth erupt. While some lucky children experience no apparent discomfort during eruption, many others do. Signs that eruption is causing discomfort in your child include crankiness, lack of appetite, excessive drooling, restless behavior, pink or red cheeks, coughing, upset stomach and chewing or sucking of fingers and toys. There are ways you can bring your child relief. A cold, wet cloth for your baby to suck on can sooth gums. There are also teething accessories and toys your child can chew on to relieve discomfort. Thumb sucking also brings relief, however, dentists recommend this practice should cease upon the arrival of the first permanent teeth, so it does not interfere with the normal development of a child's oral cavity.

Should loose primary teeth be pulled?

Losing primary teeth before they are ready to fall out can affect the proper positioning of the permanent teeth. If a baby tooth is lost too early, other teeth may tip or fill in the vacant space, forcing permanent teeth to come in crooked. If a baby tooth is knocked out, see your dentist, who may recommend a space maintainer to reserve the gap until the permanent tooth comes in. In instances where a primary tooth is loose because of the emergence of a permanent tooth, have the child wiggle the tooth or eat something hard, such as an apple, to help it along. Once the shell of the tooth is disconnected from the root, the discomfort in extracting a loose primary tooth is minimal.

Updated: February 2007

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Why is Oral Health Important for Men?

Why is Oral Health Important for Men?

Men are less likely than women to take care of their physical health and, according to surveys and studies, their oral health is equally ignored. Good oral health recently has been linked with longevity. Yet, one of the most common factors associated with infrequent dental checkups is just being male. Men are less likely than women to seek preventive dental care and often neglect their oral health for years, visiting a dentist only when a problem arises. When it comes to oral health, statistics show that the average man brushes his teeth 1.9 times a day and will lose 5.4 teeth by age 72. If he smokes, he can plan on losing 12 teeth by age 72. Men are also more likely to develop oral and throat cancer and periodontal (gum) disease.

Why is periodontal disease a problem?

Periodontal disease is a result of plaque, which hardens into a rough, porous substance called tartar. The acids produced and released by bacteria found in tartar irritate gums. These acids cause the breakdown of fibers that anchor the gums tightly to the teeth, creating periodontal pockets that fill with even more bacteria. Researchers have found a connection between gum disease and cardiovascular disease, which can place people at risk for heart attacks and strokes. See your dentist if you have any of these symptoms:

Bleeding gums during brushing Red, swollen or tender gums Persistent bad breath Loose or separating teeth Do you take medications?

Since men are more likely to suffer from heart attacks, they also are more likely to be on medications that can cause dry mouth. If you take medication for the heart or blood pressure, or if you take antidepressants, your salivary flow could be inhibited, increasing the risk for cavities. Saliva helps to reduce the cavity-causing bacteria found in your mouth.

Do you use tobacco?

If you smoke or chew, you have a greater risk for gum disease and oral cancer. Men are affected twice as often as women, and 95 percent of oral cancers occur in those over 40 years of age.

The most frequent oral cancer sites are the tongue, the floor of the mouth, soft palate tissues in back of the tongue, lips and gums. If not diagnosed and treated in its early stages, oral cancer can spread, leading to chronic pain, loss of function, irreparable facial and oral disfigurement following surgery and even death. More than 8,000 people die each year from oral and pharyngeal diseases. If you use tobacco, it is important to see a dentist frequently for cleanings and to ensure your mouth remains healthy. Your general dentist can perform a thorough screening for oral cancer.

Do you play sports?

If you participate in sports, you have a greater potential for trauma to your mouth and teeth. If you play contact sports, such as football, soccer, basketball and even baseball, it is important to use a mouthguard, which is a flexible appliance made of plastic that protects teeth from trauma. If you ride bicycles or motorcycles, wear a helmet.

To take better care of your oral health, it is important to floss daily, brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice daily and visit your dentist at least twice a year for cleanings. Here are some tips to better dental health:

Use a soft-bristled toothbrush to reach every surface of each tooth. If the bristles on your toothbrush are bent or frayed, buy a new one.Replace your toothbrush every three months or after you've been sick.Choose a toothpaste with fluoride. This can reduce tooth decay by as much as 40 percent.Brush properly. To clean the outside surfaces of your teeth, position the brush at a 45-degree angle where your gums and teeth meet. Gently move the brush in a circular motion using short, gentle strokes. To clean the inside surfaces of the upper and lower front teeth, hold the brush vertically. Make several gentle strokes over each tooth and its surrounding gum tissue. Spend at least three minutes brushing.Floss properly. Gently insert floss between teeth using a back-and-forth motion. Do not force the floss or snap it into place. Curve the floss into a C-shape against one tooth and then the other.Updated: February 2007

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Men: Looking for a Better Job? Start by Visiting the Dentist

Men: Looking for a Better Job? Start by Visiting the Dentist An online poll of 289 general dentists and consumers confirms the traditional stereotype that men are less likely to visit the dentist than their female counterparts, according to the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD), an organization of general dentists dedicated to continuing dental education. Why? Nearly 45 percent of respondents felt that men don't see a need to go to the dentist, and about 30 percent of those polled reported that men may not visit the dentist because they are afraid or embarrassed to go. Almost 18 percent revealed that men just don't have the time for a dental visit, and about 5 percent felt that men don't even have a regular dentist. This long-standing trend and excuse, however, may be disappearing as more men are climbing back into the dental chair ? for a surprising reason. "In my practice, more men are coming in and requesting bleaching, veneers and bonding," says AGD spokesperson J. Nick Russo, Sr., DDS, FAGD. "Many have noticed the positive effects from a colleague's improved smile and realize that a great smile has a lot of value in the business world." Dr. Russo also points to the fact that not long ago, most men worked for one or two employers throughout a lifetime and many did not think about the way their overall appearance affected their professional life. "That's not the reality today, with lay-offs and company closings across the board," says Dr. Russo. "Today middle-aged men are competing for jobs with younger men, making appearance a heightened factor in their lives." Taking a back seat to new cosmetic concerns for men is the increased awareness of the overall health benefits of seeing a dentist biannually. "As a dentist, I want men to come see me because they're concerned about their health, however I'm glad to see them for whatever reason they come in," says Dr. Russo. "Many times after men come back to the dentist they realize that proper maintenance and biannual checkups are the key to improving the way one looks and feels." Updated: February 2007

Headaches and Jaw Pain? Check Your Posture!

If you experience frequent headaches and pain in your lower jaw, check your posture and consult your dentist about temporomandibular disorder (TMD), recommends the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD), an organization of general dentists dedicated to continuing dental education.

Poor posture places the spine in a position that causes stress to the jaw joint. When people slouch or hunch over, the lower jaw shifts forward, causing the upper and lower teeth to not fit together properly, and the skull moves back on the spinal column.

This movement puts stress on muscles, joints and bones and, if left untreated, can create pain and inflammation in muscles and joints when the mouth opens and closes.

"Good posture is important, yet many people don't realize how posture affects their oral health," says AGD spokesperson Ludwig Leibsohn, DDS.

Dr. Leibsohn treats patients who have complained of facial pain. "Their posture often is unbalanced, and this rearranges the position of the facial muscles, causing the bumps and grooves on the upper and lower teeth not to fit properly together," said Dr. Leibsohn.

An oral appliance can help align the teeth in a position that will reduce facial pain caused by poor posture. The appliance can also prevent future damage to teeth.

Updated: November 2008

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